Language is indicated by a two letter code. The first is the language itself, the second is the dialect. If you speak a different language (or dialect) than a fief you own, this makes that fief less likely to be loyal.
Freedom is the degree of legal autonomy the inhabitants of the fief have. In HYW it mainly influences the ease with which the overlord can squeeze the fief with high taxes. The numbers mean: 1=don't try it; 2=you're probably safe; 3=squeeze away. This feature has not been implemented yet.
Status indicates the mood of the people. "Calm" means everything is OK. "Unrest" means loyalty is low and rebellion is possible. This status also reduces your income from this fief. "Rebellion" means you have lost all control (and income) in this fief. You have to raise and army and go quell the rebellion before you can resume control. Loyalty will still be low after the rebellion is quelled and you will have to build it up.