As the Catholic church became more of a bureaucracy, it established permanent organizations to handle different aspects of its work. In 1231, growing outbreaks of heresy led to the establishment of the Inquisition. This was done to reduce the mob violence and local vigilantism that were commonly unleashed on heretics up to that time. This aspect of heresy has since been forgotten, and only the (at the time, quite legal and proper) grisly proceedings of the Inquisitors who "questioned" (sometimes with torture) suspects, and often burned them at the stake. In fact, the Inquisitors, usually priests who were lawyers or theologians, were often successful in using preaching and persuation to convert the heretics, without torture or execution entering the picture. Most nations did not want inquisitors around, as they undermined royal authority, preferring to handle heretics themselves, which often meant just ignoring them. The French inquisition was very active in the 13th century, the Spanish inquisition in the 15th and 16th centuries. The English. Germans and Italians were not enthusiastic about the Inquisition and generally avoided allowing it to operate in their lands.