The Great Schism began shortly after Gregory XI returned the Papacy to Rome in 1377, after its "Babylonian Captivity. " Gregory died within a year. The subsequent papal election was conducted under considerable "pressure" for the election of an Italian pope by the Roman baronial families and rabble. The cardinals took the hint, and elected Urban VI (1378-1389), and Italian from Itri . But as soon as the election was over, some of the French cardinals reconvened at Avignon, declared Urban's election void, and elected another pope, Clement VII (1378-1394), a Frenchman. Thus began the Great Schism, as two lines of popes continued to succeed each other, one based at Rome and the other at Avignon, each appointing cardinals. The kings of Europe soon began choosing among the popes, based on their political objectives (England favored the Roman line, France the Avignon one). The whole affair casued a scandal throughout Christendom (and the Muslims even got in some jokes about it). An attempt to resolve the problem through a church council only resulted in the election of a third pope. In the end the whole business was resolved when the fortuitous concidence of the death of one pope and the resignation of another allowed their cardinals to convene together to elect Martin V (1417-1431): the third line of popes had never attracted much support, and was ignored. Martin, a Colonna , proved a very able pope, and a dedicated reformer, but the prestige of the papacy had been seriously injured, helping to pave the way for Protestantism, which is another story.