For the first two-thirds of the Hundred Years' War the popes resided in the French town of Avignon, rather than Rome. This came about because of a dispute between the Colonna and Orsini families in Rome. These families had, for some time, tended to monopolize the papacy, since most of the dozen or so cardinals who could vote for pope were Italian, and they resided in Rome, where they were subject to "influence.". In 1294, to break a deadlock between the families, a pious monk unconnected with either clan was elected. Pope Celestine was completely out of his depth and soon abdicated. The pope that followed, Boniface VIII (1294-1303) was neither a Colonna or an Orsini, albeit an Italian. He alienated both great families, and also got into a dispute with Philip IV (who was always short) over Church taxation in France. When Boniface died, the Orsini helped Philip secure the election of a Frenchman as pope. Benedict XI (1303-1304) appointed a bunch of French cardinals, but was unable to set up shop in Rome because of the angry (and powerful) Colonna family and other equally agitated Romans. Philip IV, saw his chance and offered the Pope shelter at Avignon, in Arles, more or less a dependency of France. This initated a series of seven French popes who reigned from Avignon, and who generally favored France. Finally, in 1377, for various reasons, another French pope. Gregory XI (1370-1378). moved back to Rome. Since the "captivity" of the popes at Avignon lasted approixmately the same amount of time as the exile of the Jews in Babylon, the phrase "Babylonian Captivity" came into fashion to describe the interlude. Shortly after the papacy returned to Rome the Great Schism began.