Arab Invasion of Spain
Once Islam had been established in Arabia during the 7th century, it quickly spread. This led to the following course of events in Spain.
711-713 Conquest of Iberia. Although present day Spain was overrun by Moslem armies from North Africa, not every part of the area was conquered. Many Christian nobles in the north of Spain continued to resist.
755-756 Surviving Umayyad prince (Abd al Rahman) seizes al Andalus becoming the first province to break from the Caliphs. This was the beginning of the breakup of unified Moslem control in Spain.
9th century. Muslim-Christian frontier of al Andalus largely stablized. The Christian principalities in the north were now secure and could begin their reconquest of the rest of Spain.
929 Umayyad ruler Abd al Rahman III declares himself and his successors Caliphs. This was an attempt to secure control of all Moslem held areas and, like all subsequent attempts by Moslem leaders to declare themseles Caliph (literally, "successor" to Mohammed), it failed.
1031 Collapse of Umayyad Caliphate (also known as the Caliphate of Cordova) and establishment of 15 minor independant dynasties (the "Taifa" kingdoms). This shattered the unity of Moslem power in Spain and made it easier for the Christians to take back Spain a piece at a time.
1086 Almoravids of Morocco send help to al Andalus. The Spanish Moslems had strong allies in North Africa who, from time to time, would come over to help out. But often there was civil war and disorder, or outright indifference to Spanish affairs, on the North African side.
1086-91 Battle of Zallaka (1086), Almoravids occupy all of al Andalus , except for Saragossa and the Balearic Islands which remained under control of the Hudid dynasty.
1110 Last taifa king defeated by Almoravids.
1120s Formation of Almohade movement in Morocco (also called the Murabitin or Muwahhidun in Spain). This was a fundamentalist Moslem group dedicated to enforcing strict observence of Islamic rules and customs.
1121-1147 Christian kingdoms make gains, Portugal gains full independence, Almohades finish up with Almoravids.
1150 Almohades recognized as rulers of Andalus (which at this time was about half of all Spain)
1230's Ibn Hud controls most of Andalus (which was at this time a little less territory than in 1150)
1236 capture of Cordova by Castille.
1246 Granada vassal of Castile
1252-1310 periodic civil wars in Castille
1264-7 Muslim revolt in Andalusia
1269 Extinction of Almohades by Marinids.